Fonte: EFE abril, 2015
The Yanomami indigenous people inhabiting the Venezuelan Amazon and has no external contact has its microbiome with the highest level of bacterial diversity and antibiotic resistance genes, which has never been registered in another group of human beings, according to a study by journal Science. The microbiome are bacteria and other microorganisms that inhabit the human body and progress.
“What do you suggest this finding is that with acculturation, humans lose the diversity of microorganisms by anti-bacterial practices such as antibiotics, cesarean delivery, soaps, or dental fluoride. Now we have to find out what are the missing bodies and what their functions, and to evaluate whether it would be useful to recover them, “he told EFE one of the researchers.
Scientists consider especially surprising that the microbiome of this indigenous group has genes resistant to antibiotics because they believe that the Yanomami have never been exposed to commercial antibiotics
“These disclosures supplement the evidence suggests that Westernization is associated with the loss of bacterial diversity, while suggesting that equipped to resist antibiotics genes may be a natural feature of the human microbiome,” the study said. Although there are now more scientific evidence that the microbiome plays an important role in human health function, there are few studies on how the composition of bacterial communities of human has changed as diet and lifestyle is widely adopted West in other parts of the world.
“The study of non-Western populations practices can help researchers to characterize the microbiomes most resemble those of our ancestors and understand the benefits of hosting an extensive microbial diversity,” say the researchers. Thousands of years later, the Yanomami continue to live a lifestyle partially nomadic hunter-gatherers in the Amazon jungle of Venezuela and Brazil. In 2008, a military helicopter saw a Yanomami village never before identified on maps, after a year, a medical mission landed there and got fecal samples, skin and buccal smear material, 34 people (aged 4 to 50 years ).
The smear is a scientific mechanism extended consisting of a drop of blood on the surface of a slide for later analysis with the microscope. Only one of the paper’s authors, Oscar Noya, visited the village of the Yanomami during sampling in 2009. The researchers analyzed the microbial DNA from these samples and found a significantly higher bacterial diversity, not only in comparison with a group of people of American origin but with samples from two groups that do not come from the West but with limited exposure to Western practices. Some of the bacteria present in higher levels in the Yanomami have been shown to have beneficial health effects, such as helping prevent the formation of kidney stones.
Despite not having had no documented exposure to commercial antibiotics, samples of feces containing E. coli Yanomami functional genes resistant to antibiotics, including those that offer resistance to synthetic drugs. Dominguez-Bello and his colleagues suggest that these genes may have originated from an exchange between human microbiota and bacteria on earth, where genes are resistant to antibiotics. “The results emphasize the value of characterizing the microbiome of people with styles ancentrales life before microbial diversity is lost. By doing so, you may find microbes therapeutic value for various immune disorders, “concludes estudio.